For more than a decade increased globalisation has accelerated international migration flows, and the mobility of skilled labor in particular. One major global concern is the migration of scientific and professional elites from developing countries for better personal and professional opportunities, which is considered as a net loss for the countries of origin and a gain for the richer destinations. However, recent global initiatives have highlighted migration-development interconnections based on feedback effects from skilled migration in the form of remittances, return and circular migration and contributions of diaspora associations.
The overall objective of this project is to advance knowledge-based evidence on return skilled migration and its impact on development and to explore strategies and measures for leveraging the potential of scientific diasporas. Through the example of Indian skilled migration, the research will identify ways of involving returned skilled migrants in the development process at home as well as the best approaches to engage the diaspora in this. The project findings will have wider application in contributing to the policy dialogue on migration and development, and specifically on brain gain for developing and emerging countries.
This chapter focuses on host country institutional environments in several countries, and it looks at opportunities to gain relevant expertise. We argue here that migrants who have successfully settled in their host country are in the best position to contribute to the development of their country of origin. This paper is based on data from the international research project ‘Migration, Scientific Diasporas and Development: Impact of Skilled Return Migration on Development in India’. 1 The chapter includes the results of the perspective of the countries of destination. The countries we have selected are France, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland and our aim here is to examine migration policies, labour market regulations and other institutional settings that enable or hinder the links that skilled Indians have with the country of origin. All four of the selected countries have seen a recent increase in immigration from India, and they are changing their policies to attract a more skilled labour force. Little is known about the activities of Indian professionals in Europe. Until recently countries in continental Europe rarely appeared on the map of mobile Indian professionals. Therefore, this paper aims to fill two gaps in the existing literature: firstly, it examines the conditions of Indian professionals in new destination countries and, secondly, it explores the impact of structural differences between host countries and their ability to provide a fruitful environment for diaspora engagement in home-country development.
This document contains three working papers:
(1) Incorporation of Skilled Migrants in a Host Country: Insights from the Study of Skilled Indians in Switzerland
(2) Migration, Return and Coping Patterns: A Study of Gulf Returnees in Andhra Pradesh, India
(3) Growing Relevance of Modern Indian Diaspora for India’s International Relations
Skilled migration has gained significance over the past number of years, with increasing studies addressing the flows of scientists, skilled professionals and students within the migration and development nexus, from the perspective of their potential contributions to the countries of origin either through diaspora interventions or by their eventual return. India represents a good example because of the high quality of its human resources and the fact that it is a significant source of skilled personnel for many countries around the world. While a number of European countries have upsurged as new destinations in the search for Indian talent, little is known about Indian skilled professionals and students there, their commitment to home country development and return intentions. Also, skilled return migration to India has not been fully understood. The objective of this research project was to explore the development impact of skilled return migration in India and to examine the perceptions of Indian skilled professionals and students in Europe with regard to their potential role in home country development. Drawing on first-hand data collected simultaneously in India and Europe, and using the framework of diaspora contributions and the return channels, the study illustrates the influence overseas exposure has on the professional and social position of skilled migrants upon their return to India, and the problems they face when transferring the specialized knowledge and technical skills they have gained abroad. While skilled Indian migrants consider physical return as a necessary condition for knowledge transfer, linking their development aspirations to their return plans, they face a number of obstacles within the local system that hinder the transfer of knowledge once they return to India.
The migration development nexus assumes that skilled migrants possess the potential to bring benefits to their developing countries of origin. In India in particular, this brain-gain is of great interest to study because of the significant presence of Indian skilled professionals in western countries. This paper examines the role of the factors on an individual and structural level which are responsible for skilled Indian migrants’ interests in their home country’s development. It also examines the extent to which returnees actually perceive themselves as agents of development at both a collective and an interpersonal level. The authors apply logistic regression to a primary data-based survey on skilled Indians in Europe and returnees in India. They find that both familiarity with the contemporary Indian situation as well as disadvantaged identities drives skilled migrants’ interests in home-country development. Disadvantaged identities also affect returnees’ own recognition of their role as agents of development and change. Other factors bearing this agency role include membership of cultural, religious, or political organisations, professional field, and level of education.
At $71 billion (CHF68.2 billion), India receives the world’s largest share of remittances from its migrants and the discourse on the Pravasi Bharitya often involves the Indian government thanking Indian migrants for sending money home and encouraging them to invest in the country’s growth.
However, more intangible but equally important contributions to India’s growth such as transfer of knowledge by returning migrants are seldom discussed. This is all the more worrying considering the alarm raised over the “brain drain” of highly qualified professionals leaving for foreign shores in search of greener pastures.
This edited contribution explores strategies and measures for leveraging the potential of skilled diasporas and for advancing knowledge-based evidence on return skilled migration and its impact on development. By taking the example of Indian skilled migration, this study identifies ways of involving returned skilled migrants in home country development as well as proposes approaches to engage the diaspora in development. As high-skill immigration from India to mainland Europe is a rather recent phenomenon, the activities of Indian professionals in Europe are under-researched. The findings have wider application in contributing to the policy dialogue on migration and development, specifically to the advantage for developing and emerging economies. The book employs an interdisciplinary, two-fold approach: The first part of the research looks at how international exposure affects the current situation of skilled returnees in India. The second, European, part of the research examines migration policies, labour market regulations and other institutional settings that enable or hinder skilled Indians’ links with the country of origin. Structural differences between the host countries may facilitate different levels of learning opportunities; thus, this book identifies good practices to promote the involvement of Indian skilled diaspora in socio-economic development. In applying the framework of diaspora contributions as well as the return channel to study the impact on India, the book draws on qualitative and quantitative research methods consisting of policy analysis, in-depth interviews with key experts and skilled migrants and on data sets collected specifically for this study.
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
Uttam Kumar Bhattacharya
Institute of Development Studies Kolkata
Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University
International Labour Organisation – ILO
Institute of Development Studies Kolkata
Amiya Kumar Bagchi
Calcutta University Alipur Campus
Université de Provence (Aix-Marseille I)