In the context of rapidly spreading pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes and emerging evidence that this insecticide-resistance may increase mosquito susceptibility to Plasmodium infection, malaria control faces challenges never seen before. This project aims to assess how widespread the increased susceptibility of insecticide-resistant Anopheles to Plasmodium infection is, and the risk associated with this phenomenon in relationship to human behaviour regarding the use of bed nets and insecticides in three localities: Dielmo in Senegal, Tiassalé in Côte d’Ivoire, and Tori-Bossito in Benin. Anopheline mosquitoes from these localities will be experimentally exposed to infected blood and genotyped to measure how the probability of infection is related to the genotype at the locus responsible for insecticide resistance in these three mosquito populations.

A number of other entomological parameters will be measured to assess malaria transmission in each locality, and additional sociological and anthropological data on human behaviour related to prevention of mosquito bites will be collected. These data will be used to assess the risk of setbacks in malaria control (i.e. the risk of halting of the steady decrease in malaria incidence that has been observed in the past few years, or even increasing malaria incidence) and secondly, the risk of malaria transmission being higher with infection-susceptible insecticide resistant mosquitoes than it used to be before the scale-up of insecticide treated nets, when mosquitoes were insecticide susceptible and less susceptible to infection. If the second risk is substantial, this could translate into a crisis for malaria control. This research is expected to influence policy on recommendations about the use of bed nets and insecticides, and will help to plan the future of malaria control.


  • Malaria control
  • Bed nets use
  • Insecticide resistance
  • Susceptibility to Plasmodium


  • Anthropology
  • Biology
  • Development
  • Health / Medicine
  • Mathematics
  • Sociology
  • Statistics


International Organisations:

  • Swiss TPH – Switzerland
  • Institut Pasteur Dakar – Senegal
  • Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques – Côte d’Ivoire
  • Centre de Recherches Entomologique de Cotonou – Benin
  • Unité URMITE – IRD Dakar – Senegal

Relevant Countries

  • Developing countries
  • Benin
  • Côte d’Ivoire
  • Senegal
  • Switzerland


This project, started in 2015, has been completed.

Contact the project team

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Research team

Thomas Smith
Universität Basel

Nadja Cereghetti
Swiss TPH / Universität Basel

Emilia Azalou Tingbe
Principal Member
CEPAD, Bénin

Olivier Briet
Principal Member
Swiss TPH / Universität Basel

Aurélie Cailleau
Principal Member
CSRS Côte d’Ivoire / Institut Pasteur Dakar

Nakul Chitnis
Principal Member
Swiss TPH / Universität Basel

Mouhamadou Chouaïbou Seïdou
Principal Member
Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques CSRS

Sylvain L. Faye
Principal Member
Université Cheik Anta Diop (UCAD), Dakar

Gilbert Fokou
Principal Member
Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques (CSRS)

Yadouleton William Anges
Principal Member
Centre de Recherche Entomologique de Cotonou (CREC), Bénin

Rock Aikpon
Associated Member
Centre de Recherche Entomologique de Cotonou (CREC), Bénin

Souleymane Doucoure
Associated Member
IRD Dakar

Dia Ibrahima
Associated Member
Institut Pasteur Dakar (IPD)

Vincent Richard
Associated Member
Institut Pasteur Dakar (IPD)

Jean-François Trape
Associated Member
Institut pour la Recherche et le Développement (IRD)