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Safely Managed Hygiene: A Risk-Based Assessment of Handwashing Water Quality

Matthew E. Verbyla, Ana K. Pitol, Tala Navab-Daneshmand, Sara J. Marks, Timothy R. Julian



This article models the impact of hand-washing water quality on the effectiveness of hand-washing. It informs international organizations by promoting and assessing hand-washing interventions on when the water quality of hand-washing should be considered. Furthermore, it supports future consideration of risk-based water quality frameworks to understand better – and potentially define – the concept of “safely-managed” hygiene.

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